Speech and language disorders refer to disorders in communication that arise from difficulties in hearing, language development, speech, and fluency (Cook and Friend 46). Examples include stuttering, dysarthria, voice problems, language expression disorder, and phonological disorder. These disorders usually range from small problems of sound replacement to difficulty in comprehending or using language in communication.
Treatment is mainly through speech and language therapy. Sentence: People with speech and language disorders often experience problems socially that lead to frequent misunderstandings because they cannot express themselves appropriately and with clarity.
Communication is the process of assigning and transmitting meaning in an attempt to be understood and to make sense, and that requires the vital skills of listening, observing, analyzing, and evaluating the situation and things (Cook and Friend 78). Precisely, communication is an effective exchange of information between two parties. These parties include a sender who transmits a message and a receiver who acts as the receiver of the message.
Effective communication comprises useful skills that include nonverbal communication, attentive listening, the ability to control emotions, and the ability to understand one’s and other’s emotions patterns. Sentence: effective communication is a vital life skill for any young person aspiring to be a leader or a manager of any firm, organization, or business.
Language refers to a distinct system of communication that comprises of signs and signals that include sounds, gestures, and symbols (Cook and Friend 52). In today’s world, there are more than 4000 languages spoken by different cultures and races in the world. All languages have a common characteristic in that they all depend on semiosis, a process of associating a certain sign with a certain meaning. The language used in different countries in the world varies from society to society depending on their ancestral origin and comprises of simple to complex signs, gestures, and sounds. Sentence: examples of the most popular languages spoken in the world include English, Spanish, French, Arabic, Hindi, and Russian.
Expressive language is a term that refers to the cognitive dispensation of information through the transmission of verbal, figurative, or written language in an attempt to pass on a message (Friend 106). It involves the expression of thoughts and emotions through the association of words used in a certain language. Sentence: There are many ways and methods available to deal with expressive language difficulties in young children if the problem is noticed after birth or a few years after birth.
Receptive language refers to the understanding and comprehension of language that requires vital skills such as listening, evaluating, analyzing, and understanding what another party expresses or communicates (Friend 116). Memory, attentiveness, and comprehension abilities are important skills that are necessary for understanding language. Sentence: receptive language is an important skill that students in tertiary levels of education should possess because comprehension is the most important aspect of tertiary education.
Autism Spectrum Disorders refers to a collection of brain disorders that exhibit a wide range of symptoms and defects that victims possess and includes autism, Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive development disorder (Friend 246). The main symptoms of ASDs become visible before a child attains the age of three years and mainly result in delays in the development of important skills in a child.
Symptoms include communication difficulties, social limitations, and repetitive behaviors. In some children, these symptoms appear at the tender age of 18 months. Owing to poor diagnostic methods, most of these disorders go unnoticed and become hard to treat when children enter adulthood. An exact cure for autistic spectrum disorders does not exist but there are ways of managing the symptoms.
These include therapy, educational remedies, and medication. Therapy may be on speech, behavior, or certain physical activities while medication may include drugs such as serotonin. Sentence: Scientists have not successfully discovered the real cause of the autism spectrum disorders and the real cause remains a matter of scientific speculation.
Pervasive development disorder (PDD) refers to a disorder characterized by delayed development of distinct and important human functions such as communication and socialization (Friend 336). In itself, the term refers to a distinct group of five disorders and not a diagnostic procedure or process. Symptoms include difficulties in the use and comprehension of language, difficulty in forming social relationships, abnormal play with playthings and other materials, and certain difficulties with adapting to changes in environment or routine practices. Sentence: Children suffering from any of the five pervasive development disorder, exhibit different and varying levels in intelligence and social capabilities.
Autism is a disorder that results from poor neural development commonly expressed by impaired communication skills, impaired social interaction skills, and highly repetitive behaviors (Friend 476). It is effectively diagnosed if symptoms are observed in a child before the age of 3 years. It affects the region that processes information in the brain by changing the mechanism of connection between nerve cells and synapses. It is one of the disorders grouped under the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Sentence: autism affects many children in society but lack of proper and timely diagnostic methods prevents the identification and treatment of many cases in children.
Autistic disorder refers to neurological and developmental disorder observed mainly in children that are below the age of three years (Friend 346). A child with an autistic disorder experiences difficulties carrying on with life is disinterested in most activities that define life and other people and the majority show distinct social limitations. The cause is not known but research points at genetics as a major cause. Autistic children often have trouble expressing themselves and exhibit poor social capabilities. Ongoing research has given hope for a future breakthrough on the real and exact cause of autism. Sentence: children that suffer from an autistic disorder love spending time alone because of their poor social skills and capabilities make them objects of scorn and rejection by other children.
Asperger syndrome is a disorder usually classified under the autism spectrum disorders (ASD) whose symptoms include difficulties in interacting with others socially and observed repetitive behaviors and interests (Friend 253). Its main difference from other autism spectrum disorders is that people with Asperger syndrome develop their cognitive and linguistic skills normally. The disorder is named after Hans Asperger who was an Australian pediatrician.
The precise cause of the disorder is not yet known but research points at genetics as a major cause. However, there is no proven connection of the syndrome to genetic causes. Sentence: children with Asperger syndrome are very anti-social because of the poorly developed social skills that push them into lonely lives that are characterized by self-pity, low self-esteem, and diminished confidence
Cook, Lynne and Friend Marilyn. Interactions: Collaboration Skills for School Professionals. New York: Allyn and Bacon, 2003. Print.
Friend, Marilyn. Special Education: Contemporary Perspectives for School Professionals (3rd edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc, 2011. Print.