Because AG’s body mass index is higher than 25, he is suffering from blurred vision and hypertension and has never had these complaints before, it is logical to assume that he has type 2 diabetes. However, it is recommended to complete a random blood sugar test and an oral glucose tolerance test to operate with additional data for more precise diagnosis establishment. In case all readings confirm the presence of type 2 diabetes, further testing is not required. Meanwhile, if type 1 diabetes is suspected, an additional urine test is needed to look for the occurrence of a byproduct derived from the process of fat and muscle tissues burning. Also, the patient will be tested for the presence of destructive immune system cells (autoantibodies) that are normally associated with type 1 diabetes (American Diabetes Association, 2015). Such a complex testing will assist in the more accurate planning of a treatment course.
Current therapy to a higher extent depends on what type of diabetes the patient has. Knowing it will help to determine whether AG needs “insulin or maximal dose oral agents” (American Diabetes Association, 2013, p. 42). Nevertheless, monitoring blood sugar and taking oral medications are the two components of treatment regardless of diabetes type. Metformin is the first medication to recommend in this case. As for the insulin therapy, it will be referred to if type 1 diabetes is established.
Naturally, an effective treatment of diabetes involves changing one’s lifestyle. The patient is supposed to learn all the available information about the disease and take proper care. The next step is to stick to a healthy diet, where fruits, vegetables, and leafy greens are the major ingredients. The amount of saturated fat is strictly limited. Also, regular physical exercises will assist in maintaining a better blood sugar control and normalizing blood pressure. Thus, a healthy lifestyle is the main factor of an effective treatment regardless of the age or diagnosis.
American Diabetes Association. (2013). Standards of medical care in diabetes – 2013. Diabetes Care, 36(1), S11-S66.
American Diabetes Association. (2015). Classification and diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes Care, 38(1), S8-S16.