Maternal and Child Health Nursing Bibliography

Medline Plus. (2011). Gestational diabetes. Web.

The article describes Gestational diabetes as a condition that occurs in expectant mothers. The author defines gestational diabetes as the type of diabetes that manifests itself during the period of pregnancy. The purpose of the article is to provide knowledge about this commonly occurring condition among expectant mothers. The author describes the risk factors for gestational diabetes such as increasing age, family and genetic history of diabetes as well as having in the recent past given birth to an overweight child. In addition, the author states the signs and symptoms of gestational diabetes. These include blurring of vision, increased fatigability, as well as increased thirst, urination and appetite even though the mothers are observed to lose weight. The author goes ahead to outline the various diagnostic tests carried out and recommends that all expectant women should be subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test in the period between weeks 24 and 28 of gestation for screening purposes.

The author stresses the importance of having this test earlier in pregnancy especially for those women who have one or more of the risk factors. The author further tackles the modalities of management of gestational diabetes with the aim of maintaining maternal blood sugar within normal limits. This ensures that the health of the fetus is maintained throughout the gestation period. The author proposes the utilization of ultrasound techniques in conjunction with other non-stress methods in monitoring fetal health. The article goes ahead to assess the prognostic picture of gestational diabetes. The author emphasizes the consequences of gestational diabetes to the fetus such as the fetus whose mothers had gestational diabetes tend to be larger when compared to those whose mothers did not have this form of diabetes. The author further states that after pregnancy, the blood sugar tends to go back to normal even though such women are more likely to develop hypertension sometime in the future. The author tackles complications associated with gestational diabetes such as the increased tendency of delivery difficulties and a likelihood of stillbirths. The author finishes off by elaborating modalities of prevention of occurrence of gestational diabetes in expectant mothers. These include regular antenatal visits, watching one’s health and a clear understanding of the risk factors of this form of diabetes.

The article is well written with a clear presentation of facts in an organized fashion. The article defined what gestational diabetes is. It further elaborated the causes, risk factors and prognosis of gestational diabetes as well as the preventive and treatment options available (Medline Plus, 2011).

Nurses should be at the forefront in educating to be mothers on the causes and risk factors of gestational diabetes during the expectant women’s visit to the antenatal clinic. They should stress the importance of a good diet and exercise as some of the ways of prevention of gestational diabetes. Furthermore, as nurses, we should aim at teaching expectant mothers the importance of understanding the risk factors and the benefits of seeking treatment early in order to give birth to a healthy baby and provide counseling on the importance of fetal monitoring.

I enjoyed reading this article as it presented facts on gestational diabetes in a clear and organized manner. At the end of the article, I had gained knowledge on the consequences of poorly managed gestational diabetes. Furthermore, I learned about the appropriate period of screening of gestational diabetes in expectant women and of modalities of management of those already with the condition.

Wong, A.W. & Rosh, A.J. (2010). Postpartum infections. Wayne State University Journal, 14(2), 1-7.

The article illuminates one of the most common forms of infections in postnatal mothers; postpartum infections. The author provides a clear and elaborate background on postpartum infection. The author provides scenarios under which this type of infection occurs. These are during vaginal or caesarean delivery or during breastfeeding. The article goes ahead to define postpartum fever as any temperature beyond 380C on at least two days of the 10 days following delivery including the initial 24hours after delivery. The author describes in detail the causes of this form of infection. The article identifies localized spread of bacteria s the mainstay mechanism through which the infection occurs. The article identifies and lists the various forms of postpartum infection. These are endometritis, perianal cellulitis, postsurgical wound infections, and mastitis. Others include complications of respiration from anesthesia, remnants of conception, and urinary tract infections (UTIs). Of all these, the article identifies endometritis as the most common form of postpartum infection and wound infection as the most common complication of caesarean delivery.

The author describes the frequency of occurrence of postpartum infection, even though the author acknowledges the lack of scientific studies on the subject. The author provides a picture of a literature review that identifies the occurrence of more postpartum infections in those women who underwent caesarean section as compared to those who had a vaginal delivery. Furthermore, the review stressed the commonality of occurrence of endometritis in women who had caesarean section. Mastitis and urinary tract infections were identified in the article as the most common complications of vaginal delivery.

The article stresses the demographic differences in terms of race in relation to the prevalence of postpartum infections. Urinary tract infections, a form of postpartum infection are stated in the article to be more prevalent in minority groups in the United States. In addition, the article puts a figure on the mortality rate as a result of postpartum infections. The article emphasizes the clinical and physical aspects involved in arriving at a definitive diagnosis of postpartum infection in a hospital setting. In addition, the article identifies the risk factors and causes of postpartum infection. These are but are not limited to the route of infection, a history of caesarean delivery, and premature membrane rupture. The article illuminates the organisms implicated in the causation of postpartum infection. These are Staphylococcus, which is implicated in the majority of wound infections, Escherichia coli a cause of urinary tract, and Staphylococcus aureus in mastitis among others. The author talks about current trends that have greatly reduced the occurrence of postpartum infections. These include the perioperative use of antibacterial agents and maintenance of high hygienic standards during delivery (Wong & Rosh, 2010).

The article is well presented with properly organized bulleted points for seamless readability. The information given is structured to provide a clear view of the causes, prevalence, and risk factors of postpartum infection. The article defines postpartum fever and the period for it to be used as a diagnostic tool in postpartum infections. The limitation of this article is the failure by the authors to discuss modalities of management of postpartum infection both in and outpatient settings.

I loved reading the article as it provided me with an insight into the various forms of postpartum infections. As a nurse, the article provides a rich source of understanding, the risk factors associated with postpartum infections and modalities of minimizing them.

Sterns, O. (2009). Pioneering op gives female circumcision victims hope. CNN Health, 1-2.

The article illuminates the highly controversial issue of female genital mutilation. The article goes ahead to emphasize the adverse effects of this practice in the regions that practice it such as Africa, South America and some regions in Asia. The article provides direct accounts of people who have had the cut and the effects of the practice on their daily activities. Such an account is given by the Somali model sensation Waris Dirie who had the practice done on her. Her story, according to the authors was to be released in form of a film. The article goes ahead to address the efforts of one physician in managing women who have had the cut. The authors describe the work carried out by the French physician, Dr. Pierre Foldes and the outcomes of the program. The authors narrate the experiences of the French doctor in trying to right the wrongs of female mutilation in different parts of the world.

The authors talk about Dr. Foldes’s technique of restorative surgery that replaces the painful tissue to allow for reconstruction of the clitoris by trimming the ligaments to uncover the novel root. The article emphasizes the testimonials of those who have undergone the procedure with a majority. The author reiterates the efforts of the French physician who attends to a large number of women with his group of medical practitioners to ensure the whole range of aspects are dealt with. This incorporates the emotional and psychological trauma caused by the practice of female genital mutilation. The article demonstrates the efforts of Dr. Foldes in fighting to achieve free treatment of the affected women by subsidies provided by the French public health system. The authors illuminate the challenges faced by this courageous doctor. This includes threats at his life with armed people breaking into his office in the hope of inflicting harm. The authors demonstrate the harmful effects of female genital mutilation such as infections and the formation of a fistula. The authors further describe the appalling conditions under which the practice is done. The authors, articulate efforts being done by the international organizations in combatting this vice. In addition, the authors illuminate the efforts of religious groups and other organizations in promoting the practice of female genital mutilation.

The article was well written with a clear presentation of information. The authors used direct quotations to reinforce the feelings of the affected individuals. By interviewing the people on the frontline in advocating against the practice of female genital mutilation, the authors render credibility and validity to the article. The author articulately presented their information in an orderly manner that allows the reader to follow the story with interest. The use of testimonials emphasizes the impact of the practice on the individual and society as a whole. In addition, the author acknowledges the presence of groups that support the vice (Sterns, 2009).

As a nurse, the article has been a big revelation of the happenings in different parts of the world. I have come to appreciate my own culture and society and to feel for those that are affected. In addition, the article aroused an interest in form of thinking of providing nursing care in a setting like Dr. Foldes’s reconstructive surgery center. The article made me think and respect the nursing care provided by the nurses in the Dr. Foldes center.