Tea as an Alternative to Preventive Medicine

Citation 1

Beliveau, Richard, and Denis Gingras. Green tea: prevention and treatment of cancer by nutraceuticals. Lancet 364.9439 (2004):1021-22. Print.

Credibility

This article was published in the Lancet, which is a resourceful scholarly source. Beliveau is a leading Ph.D. scholar in the field of cancer research at the University of Quebec. Gingras is a researcher in Sainte-Justine hospital in Molecular Medicine and a professor at the University of Quebec.

Summary of the argument

Purpose

The authors’ purpose was to describe the science of food by showing the contents of certain foods that form the cancer-fighting elements. They show that green tea elements (GTE) have therapeutic elements that prevent the body from different cancers.

Summary

This study adopts secondary but approved data to support the given propositions. According to the authors, more than 30% of the factors that lead to cancer are associated with a poor diet. One of the reviews conducted by these authors involved the Japanese population as Japan is one of the cigarette smoking nations, but it is lowlily affected by cancer. The authors argue that green tea is highly considered by the Japanese as a major medicine for the prevention and management of many diseases. The findings show that 2-4 cups of green tea per day constitute adequate concentrations of EGCG contents, which are needed to provide a combination for treating leukemia and other types of cancer. The study also established that green tea has a higher concentration of strong antioxidants as compared to other food products. Antioxidants present in green tea like polyphenols neutralize free radicals, which cause coronary artery diseases.

What I learned

This article is useful because it gives information about the foods that people should include in their diets and the proper combinations. By reading this article, I understand why it is necessary for everyone to take green tea and how easily we can prevent diseases.

Citation 2

Boon, Heather, Folashade Olatunde, and Suzanna Zick. “Trends in Complementary/ Alternative Medicine Use by Breast Cancer Survivors: Comparing Survey Data from 1998 and 2005.” BMC Women’s Health 7.4 (2007): 3-9. Print.

Credibility

The University of Toronto Ethics Review Board, as well as the Institutional Review Board for Human-Based Study, reviewed and approved this study at the medical school of the University of Michigan. The authors have PhDs in Pharmaceutical sciences, and the first two are based in the University of Toronto and the third in the University of Michigan.

Summary of the argument

Purpose

This study sought to examine the effectiveness of green tea as a complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) for breast cancer survivors at two different points in time, viz. 1998 and 2005.

Summary

The authors claim that green tea was reported as the most commonly used product for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer by 2005. Surveys were done via questionnaires, which were randomly mailed to women chosen from the Ontario Cancer Registry in 1998 and 2005. In 2005, the percentage of respondents using CAM rose to 81.9% as opposed to 66.7% in 1998. The review of evidence indicated an overall decline in the risk of breast cancer by patients taking green tea. The results also found that in the cohort of 2005, more than 10% of patients who used green tea reported that it helped in the management of breast cancer. Reduced surgery was also reported among patients who used this product. The study also established that green tea served better with no adverse effects than most conventional anti-nausea medicines. However, the study concluded that there was no universal dosage for this product due to the lack of serious adverse effects.

What I learned

This study was useful because it gave new insights on curbing the risks of breast cancer by using natural products, which are ignored in most cases. This study highlighted the idea of self-medication, reducing the overdependence of professional practitioners. This study underscored the need for more research on the effectiveness and safety of green tea when used, along with conventional cancer treatments.

Citation 3

Carson, Christine, and Thomas Riley. “Non-antibiotic therapies for infectious diseases.” antimicrobial resistance in Australia 3.27 (2003): 144-147. Print.

Credibility

Carson is a professor at the University of Western Australia, and Riley is a Professor at the Department of Microbiology in Queen Elizabeth II Medical Center, Perth. The article is peer-reviewed by the antimicrobial resistance team in Australia for its credibility.

Summary of the argument

The authors claim that probiotics are widely accepted alternative medicines for the treatment of infectious diseases or prevention of antibiotic-linked vomiting and diarrhea. The authors suggest that some of the products that have been used as alternative medicine include tea extracts for skin infections. This study shows that laypeople use tea products as alternative therapies, but health professionals insist on conventional medicine by claiming that non-medical products should be used as supplements.

A survey adopted in this study shows that half of the Australian population had used at least one of the alternative medicines with tea extracts, thus gaining the greatest approval. The study shows that tea extracts were reported to have a quicker response than most conventional medicines in the treatment of skin infections. The results found that this tea extract medicine had fewer side effects than many antibiotics for some patients, while in others, no side effects were observed. The study also established that tea extract medicines prevented skin cancer. However, it identified the need for further studies to establish the right dosage for different skin tones to eliminate the mild side effects experienced by some patients.

What I learned

The study is useful because it provides evidence on an area that is rarely studied by showing that tea extracts used as antiseptics have fewer side effects as opposed to conventional antibiotics. The authors call for more research on this field to ensure that during this post-antibiotic era, all the claims developed for alternative medicines are validated.

Citation 4

Chung-Hua, Hsu, Liao Ying-Li, Lin Su-Ching, Tsai Tung-Hu., Huang Chien-Jung, and Jesus Chou. “Does supplementation with green tea extract improve insulin resistance in obese Type 2 Diabetics? A Randomized, Double-blind, and Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial.” Alternative Medicine Review 16.2 (2011): 157-163. Print.

Credibility

The first, fourth, and sixth authors have PhDs, and the rest are managing directors in their respective departments in Taiwan. This study is original research approved by the Institute of Traditional Medicine at the University of Taipei.

Summary of the argument

Purpose

The authors claim that individuals with diabetes are increasingly using complementary alternative medicine (CAM) as opposed to those without diabetes. The study argues that green tea is one of the most used beverages in the world because it is beneficial in the prevention and treatment of a number of diseases. The study is based on the hypothesis that green tea with caffeine helps to boost insulin resistance and metabolic functioning in obese type-2 diabetic individuals. A random placebo-controlled clinical trial commenced in December 2007 to November 2008.

The trial involved 736 type-2 diabetic patients registered in Taipei Hospital. Eighty patients were enrolled for the inclusion and exclusion procedures. The Humans Ethics Committee of the Taipei hospital approved the procedure, and patients were advised to keep their current diets. Within the first four weeks, patients were required to report for assessments. The sample of green tea was tested for the presence of decaffeinated GTE. The results showed a significant reduction in weight for the patients administering green tea, but no progress for the placebo group after 16 weeks. Waist circumference also reduced, but the BMI indicated slow but consistent progress. The patients using green tea revealed a huge drop in serum insulin, but for the placebo group, no significant change occurred.

What I learned

I appreciate that this study is done well using a control group to provide consistent evidence on the topic. The sample size was sufficient, and it used modern methods of recording data, viz. SPSS software. The study gave me new evidence that green tea extracts are not simply usual treatments but alternatives for a number of emerging diseases.

Citation 5

Pisters, Katherine, Robert Newman, Brenda Coldman, Dong Shin, Faldo Khuri, Waun Hong, Bonnie Glisson, and Jin Lee. “Phase I trial of oral green tea extract in adult patients with solid tumors.” Journal of Clinical Oncology 19:6 (2001): 8-1830. Print.

Credibility

The authors are members of the Department of Thoracic and Neck medical oncology at the University of Texas. The American Society of Clinical Oncology reviewed the article, thus proving its scholarly significance.

Summary of the argument

Purpose

This study purposes of determining the optimum-tolerated dose, adverse effects, and efficacy of oral green tea contents when taken once to three times a day.

Summary

The trial used cohorts of four or more patients diagnosed with cancer aged above 18 years. Based on informed consent, correspondents were given green tea extracts with water once or thrice a day for four weeks. The study lasted for 6 months, but patients were administered depending on body response and adaptability. Medical combinations were optional. 49 patients were administered dose levels of 1-5.05 g/m (2) during the study. The findings indicated the optimum tolerated dose level as 4.2 g/m (2) once in a day or 1 g/m (2) when taken thrice in a day. No adverse effects were recorded. The study concluded that the concentration of caffeine determines the dose level tolerated by patients. Side effects were only linked to caffeine concentrations. The doses studied were recommended as safe for a minimum of six months.

What I learned

This study was useful since it provides the right dosage to be administered for oral green tea. The study was necessary because it gave insights that green tea contains lesser caffeine than coffee with the right dosage for cerebrovascular health. This study correlates the impacts that green tea extracts can have on human health.

Citation 6

Servan-Schreiber, David. Anticancer: A New Way of Life, New York: Viking, 2009. Print.

Credibility

This new edition provides relevant developments in cancer research, building on the existing knowledge. The author is a Clinical Professor of psychiatry in the School of Medicine at the University of Pittsburgh.

The purpose of the text is to provide the best tips on how patients with cancer can fight it as well as how to prevent it. The author reviews the existing evidence obtained from preclinical experiments and clinical trials associated with preventing and managing cancer. According to this review, tea polyphenols, which are capable of cancer treatment, are believed to constitute about 30% of the dry weight of the solids in processed green tea. This information shows the richness of a cup of green tea on the prevention and treatment of cancer. The author introduces a new chapter on foods that act like medications. He claims that some foods included in diets act as boosters for tumors, while others serve as anticancer resisters. The author suggests that one of the commonly used anticancer foods is the green tea. He does not refute the conventional procedures for cancer treatment, but he suggests that polyphenols like catechins enhance the impacts of radiotherapy on cancer. This study does not only provide information about the efficacy of green tea in the prevention of cancer, but also it highlights foods that cause cancer.

What I learnt

The ideas provided about anti-cancer foods seem so common to our daily lives, but they are compelling. The author shows that most people do not take this simple instruction, which leads to cancer epidemics. The topic on green tea provides the best nutritional combination by identifying that we should avoid some diets that lead to cancer and opt for a cup of green tea 3-4 times a day.

Citation 7

Thielecke, Frank, and Michael Boschmann. “The Potential Role of Green Tea Catechins in the Prevention of the Metabolic Syndrome – A Review.” Phytochemistry 70.1 (2009): 11-24. Print.

Credibility

This article was published in the PubMed database, thus proving its credibility and acceptance. The authors are experts in human nutrition and health currently working at DSM Nutritional Products Ltd, which is based in Basel, Switzerland.

Summary of the argument

Purpose

The authors argue that metabolic syndrome (MetS) has become an emerging health problem in the healthcare sector. They claim that green tea has been identified as essential for prevention and management of metabolic syndrome.

Summary

The rising number of human studies exploring the efficacy of green tea show that main MetS conditions like type-2 diabetes, heart disease, and obesity are manageable. The beneficial extracts of green tea are linked to its catechin, especially epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) component. The study was conducted from 2007 to 2008 among patients registered with type-2 diabetes for patients aged 18 years and above. Patients were randomly contacted to receive extracts of green tea particularly EGCG contents. Throughout the study, the patients were assessed for body mass index, blood pressure, uric acid, and creatinine. The results established that green tea produced a small, but consistent reduction in BMI. However, catechins without caffeine were reported to have no impact on the patients. The study concluded that taking 2-3 cups of green tea with caffeine was necessary for patients. The study identified that different patients reported varying developments with some showing greater margins of disease management than others. Some patients reported mild effects such as discomfort when used alongside conventional medications.

What I learnt

I realized that it is essential for anyone, whether sick or healthy, to take green tea with caffeine because it has the potential to prevent and manage numerous diseases. This study was short lived so these claims might lack sufficient evidence. Nevertheless, the study revealed the importance of green tea to human health.

Citation 8

Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet, Manuela Lejeune, and Eva Kovacs. “Body weight loss and weight maintenance in relation to habitual caffeine intake and green tea supplementation.” Obesity Research 13.7(2005): 204-1195. Print.

Credibility

Westerterp-Plantega is a Professor of Human Biology at the Maastricht University, Netherlands. PubMed had approved this article, which is a scholarly source.

Summary of the argument

Purpose

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of green tea with caffeine on weight management after weight loss in average obese people.

Summary

A random placebo-controlled trial was conducted for 76 overweight and average obese people. Factors considered included sex, age, caffeine intake, and BMI. The intervention involved intake of low energy foods for four weeks and weight management for three months. During the weight management period, the correspondents took green tea with caffeine or placebo. The results suggested that high intake of caffeine led to a decrease in weight, fat content, and waist circumference as opposed to those who consumed less caffeine. In addition, high consumption of green tea with caffeine increased urinary excretion of unnecessary citric acid. Green tea caffeine mixture had no side effects for high caffeine consumers. With low caffeine consumers, slow but consistent change was observed. The study showed that weight loss was due to thermogenesis as well as fat oxidation.

What I learnt

The evidence provided was useful because it provides knowledge on the importance of long-term use of green tea such as fat distribution. However, I feel that this study failed to show consistence in the impact of body weight by green tea, and thus more research is needed to validate such claims.

Works Cited

Beliveau, Richard, and Denis Gingras. Green tea: prevention and treatment of cancer by nutraceuticals. Lancet 364.9439 (2004):1021-22. Print.

Boon, Heather, Folashade Olatunde, and Suzanna Zick. “Trends in Complementary/ alternative Medicine Use by Breast Cancer Survivors: Comparing Survey Data from 1998 and 2005.” BMC Women’s Health 7.4 (2007): 3-9. Print.

Carson, Christine, and Thomas Riley. “Non-antibiotic therapies for infectious diseases.” antimicrobial resistance in Australia 3.27 (2003): 144-147. Print

Chung-Hua, Hsu, Liao Ying-Li, Lin Su-Ching, Tsai Tung-Hu., Huang Chien-Jung, and Pesus Chou. “Does Supplementation with Green Tea Extract Improve Insulin Resistance in Obese Type 2 Diabetics? A Randomized, Double-blind, and Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial.” Alternative Medicine Review 16.2 (2011): 157-163. Print.

Pisters, Katherine, Robert Newman, Brenda Coldman, Dong Shin, Faldo Khuri, Waun Hong, Bonnie Glisson, and Jin Lee. “Phase I trial of oral green tea extract in adult patients with solid tumors.” Journal of Clinical Oncology 19:6 (2001): 8-1830. Print.

Servan-Schreiber, David. Anticancer: A New Way of Life, New York: Viking, 2009. Print.

Thielecke, Frank, and Michael Boschmann. “The Potential Role of Green Tea Catechins in the Prevention of the Metabolic Syndrome – A Review.” Phytochemistry 70.1 (2009): 11-24. Print.

Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet, Manuela Lejeune, and Eva Kovacs. “Body weight loss and weight maintenance in relation to habitual caffeine intake and green tea supplementation.” Obesity Research 13.7(2005): 204-1195. Print.